What’s new in the Energy Transition Model?
1. Natural gas demand calculated per hour
Demand and production of (natural) gas is now calculated for each hour per year rather than on a yearly basis. This allows you to see how gas use fluctuates over time, for example due to the heating of homes or electricity production. You may also explore how (peak) demand for gas will change in the future, and how this is affected by weather conditions.
The results of this time-resolved calculation are depicted in three new charts about gas demand, production, and storage. You can find them by clicking the “see more charts” button in the top right corner of the ETM.
2. Explore the impact of extreme weather conditions
Extreme weather conditions – such as extreme cold/warm periods and lack/excess of sunshine and wind – may affect your scenario. Low temperatures may impact (peak) heat demand, whereas a lack of wind and sunshine may negatively affect electricity production from wind and solar power. To explore these effects, a year with extreme weather conditions can now be selected in the ETM:
- 1987: “Dunkelflaute” during extreme cold winter period
- 1997: Lack of sustainable energy (incl. “Dunkelflaute”) and extreme cold days
- 2004: Excessive and scarce sustainable energy
This feature is only available for (regions in) the Netherlands.
3. CO2 factsheet available for your scenario
A visual representation of the CO2 footprint for your scenario is now available under the results section in the ETM. You can look at the footprint for your scenario’s start and end year, making it easy to see the impact of your choices on CO2 emissions in your region. This sheet is ready to print.
4. Hybrid heat in industry
It is now possible to combine gas and hydrogen burners in the industry sector with power-to-heat boilers, which reduce demand for gas and hydrogen during periods of excess electricity production. As opposed to regular (baseload) electric boilers, this new option allows users to prevent that electric boilers from running on electriciy produced by gas or hydrogen plants. The calculation is done on an hourly basis; the resulting gas and hydrogen demand profiles are therefore dependent on available surpluses. Hybrid heat is available in the following sectors: chemical industry, refineries, food industry and paper industry.
5. Hydrogen in industry
It is now also possible to use hydrogen in the ‘other industry’ sector, next to the energy carriers already present.
6. Weighted average costs of capital (WACC)
You can now adjust the future cost of capital (WACC) for all technologies in the ETM. More information can be found on our documentation.
7. Improvements in biomass modelling
The modelling of biomass in the ETM has been improved in collaboration with TKI Nieuw Gas, Gasunie, GasTerra and TNO. Using biomass in a scenario is now simpler and more transparent. The improvements allow the user to see at a glance which biomass flows exist for the region, both for the present and the future. In addition, potentials for various biomass flows have been investigated by TNO. The ETM now shows these potentials for each region. Another important point of improvement is the addition of supercritical water gasification (SCW) and gasification of dry biomass for green gas. All required data on biomass and conversion techniques have been adjusted and documented on our GitHub based on research by TNO.
8. New large-scale electricity storage technologies
Two large-scale electricity storage technologies have been added: underground pumped hydro storage and large-scale batteries. Excess electricity from renewable sources can now be stored in these technologies and supplied to the grid at a later moment. The user can adjust the costs of these technologies.